The legs occasionally imitated those of animals with claw feet or hoofs, but usually they were either turned on the lathe and ornamented with moldings or cut from a flat slab of wood sharply silhouetted and decorated in various ways—with incised designs or with volutes, rosettes, and other patterns in high relief. From about the 6th century BCE, the legs projected above the couch frame; these projections became headboards and footboards, the latter eventually made lower than the headboards. In Hellenistic times headrests and footrests were carved and decorated with bronze medallions carrying busts of children, satyrs, or heads of birds and animals in high relief. Turned legs largely replaced rectangular ones. Although a bronze bed of the 2nd century BCE has been found at Priene and marble couches sometimes occur in tombs, the usual material was wood. The legs often terminated in metal feet and sometimes were encased in bronze moldings, and the rails also were sometimes covered with bronze sheathing.
By 1700 the effect of French and Dutch fashions on late Stuart furniture in England had become evident in the American colonies. Fashion consciousness appeared, though for decades to come the furniture of the average colonial home kept to the earlier tradition evolved from medieval joining. The box chest was succeeded by the chest of drawers, often placed on a stand with turned legs. Chairs began to replace stools; and the early heavy, turned, and wainscot (panelled back) types gave way to simplified versions of the high-back scrolled forms of the English Restoration fashion. The daybed appeared with its upholstered pad. Small folding tables, cabinets, and the tiered dresser to store and display tableware testify to the rapidly increasing standard of comfort among the more prosperous. Carved surface decoration was largely replaced by colour, through the use of paint, veneers, or inlays of contrasting wood.
Roman chairs developed from Greek models. The Greek throne chair evolved into a small armchair with solid rounded back made in one piece with sides set on a rectangular or semicircular base. This armchair was often of wickerwork, wood, or stone. The Greek klismos chair was given heavier structural members by the Romans and was called the cathedra. The Romans developed a decorative type of stool, often made in bronze. This was supported by four curved legs, ornamented with scrolls. The folding stool, with cross legs sometimes connected by stretcher bars, was used both by Roman officials and in households. Remains of folding stools are known from sites such as those at Ostia, Italy, and barrows in Britain—on the Essex-Cambridgeshire border, and in Kent. This developed into a stool that had more solid double curved legs; examples were found at Pompeii. An example in iron with bronze decorations, even heavier in form, was found at Nijmegen, in the Netherlands.
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