Beginning of 18th century the agricultural revolution spread across Britain, Europe, and Americas. With new methods of farming and intense labour there was tremendous production of agricultural products which led to surplus in food production. This resulted in pulling down the prices and farmers prosperity increased, the farmers started to move towards rapidly expanding towns. In 1760, a second revolution got under way in Britain as industrial revolution. With the new machinery powered by coal and water, the steam engine revolutionized the manufacture of textile and eventually led to mass production of furniture and other household goods. Alongside both the revolutions was a cultural revolution known as Enlightment, a philosophical attempt to rationalize the replacement of customs, traditions, and religion with reason and natural law. It was a period of two of the most important political revolution in history, The American Revolution of 1776 against British colonial rule that led to the independence of the United States of America; and the French Revolution of 1789 that overthrew the monarchy and introduced new ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity.
From the Greek Archaic period onward many varieties of individual seats are known, the most imposing, perhaps, being elaborately adorned, high-backed ceremonial chairs of wood or marble. Like the couches, they were supported on turned legs, legs cut from a rectangular piece of wood, or legs with animal feet; they frequently had arm rails. Another type of boxlike seat with no feet and with or without a back is also found. The klismos chair was lighter and had a curved back and plain, sharply curved legs, indicating a great mastery of wood-working. The diphros was a stool standing on four crossed, turned legs, sometimes connected by stretcher bars and sometimes terminating in hoofs or claw feet. The convenience of folding stools was realized at an early date, and the diphros was popular. Greek tables were usually small and easily portable. An interesting type had an oblong top supported by three legs, two at one end and one at the other. These legs usually tapered from the top and terminated in claw feet, and the bronze and stone examples which are occasionally found show carved flutings on the front of the legs and scroll ornament at the side below the table tops. Rectangular tables with four legs were also used, as were round tops.
Strapwork, cartouches, and grotesque masks are characteristic features of this northern Renaissance style, and are found repeatedly in the pattern books of German and Flemish artists of the time—books of ornament which circulated among and influenced metalworkers, carvers, plasterers and furniture makers throughout the north. Heavy oak tables, sometimes draw (extension) tables, had massive legs and solid stretchers. Beds were heavily draped to provide privacy, as the bed might be located in any room of the house. Folding wooden chairs and low stools, with more or less elaborate turnery, were still used, besides a new type with baluster-formed or twisted legs and arms, and straight backs heightening through the 17th century.
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