Veronika Biddle, March 15th , 2018.
Later Middle Ages. In the 14th and 15th centuries there were many developments both in construction and design of furniture throughout Europe; a range of new types, among them cupboards, boxes with compartments, and various sorts of desks, evolved slowly. Most of the furniture produced was such that it could be easily transported. A nobleman who owned more than one dwelling place usually had only one set of furnishings that he carried with him from house to house. Anything that could be moved, and this frequently included the locks on the doors and the window fittings, was carried away and used to furnish the next house en route. Furniture was so scarce that it was quite usual for a visitor to bring his own bed and other necessities with him. These conditions had a double effect on medieval furniture, not only making it difficult for men to possess more than the basic types of furniture but also affecting the design of the furniture itself. Folding chairs and stools, trestle tables with removable tops, and beds with collapsible frameworks were usual.
Beginning of 18th century the agricultural revolution spread across Britain, Europe, and Americas. With new methods of farming and intense labour there was tremendous production of agricultural products which led to surplus in food production. This resulted in pulling down the prices and farmers prosperity increased, the farmers started to move towards rapidly expanding towns. In 1760, a second revolution got under way in Britain as industrial revolution. With the new machinery powered by coal and water, the steam engine revolutionized the manufacture of textile and eventually led to mass production of furniture and other household goods. Alongside both the revolutions was a cultural revolution known as Enlightment, a philosophical attempt to rationalize the replacement of customs, traditions, and religion with reason and natural law. It was a period of two of the most important political revolution in history, The American Revolution of 1776 against British colonial rule that led to the independence of the United States of America; and the French Revolution of 1789 that overthrew the monarchy and introduced new ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity.
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